Traditional Knowledge Systems

It is now recognized that western criteria are not the sole benchmark by which other cultural knowledge should be evaluated. While the term ‘traditional’ sometimes carries the connotation of ‘pre-modern’ in the sense of ‘primitive’ or ‘outdated’, many of the traditional sciences and technologies were in fact quite advanced even by western standards as well as better adapted to unique …

Red Earth and Pouring Rain

குறிஞ்சி – தலைவன் கூற்று யாயும் ஞாயும் யாரா கியரோ, எந்தையும் நுந்தையும் எம்முறைக் கேளிர், யானும் நீயும் எவ்வழி யறிதும், செம்புலப் பெயனீர் போல, அன்புடை நெஞ்சம் தாங்கலந் தனவே. -செம்புலப் பெயனீரார் What is my mother to yours? What kin is my father to yours anyway ? And how did you and I ever meet ? But in love our hearts have mingled Like red earth and …

Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics

Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics Madhava is not only a pioneer in discovering an exact infinite series for pi, he is also a trail blazer in discovering rapidly convergent approximations and transformations of the series. In the same way, Madhava is not satisfied with merely enunciating the infinite series for the sine and cosine functions (the so called Newtons …

Jagannāth Rath Yatra

Etymologically, “”Jagann?th”” means “Master, Lord” (”n?tha”) of the “World, Universe” (”Jagata”).The word has Sanskrit origin, “Jagann?tha” is a genitive tat-puru?a-sam?sa, derived from “‘Jagat” (a reduplicated nominal form of the verbal root ?gam [to go]), meaning “[whatsoever] is moving” and n?tha (). Jagann?tha can thus also mean “He the shelter of the Revolving World”. Some scholars have suggested that the word …

Vastu Temple Architecture

The architecture of Dharmic temples evolved over a period of several thousands years guided by Vastu principles. Dharmic temples are of different shapes and sizes – rectangular, octagonal, semi circular – with different types of domes and gates. Temples in southern India have a different style than those in northern India. Although the architecture of Hindu temples is varied, they …

Pramāņa Systems

  Pratyaksha Pramāņa Pratyaksha or Perception implies direct, immediate cognition. There are two kinds of direct perception, external and internal. The ‘external’ perception implies cognition of sense objects, namely – sound, touch, form, taste and smell by our five sense organs or gyanendriyās – ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose. When the sense organs contact their respective objects then the …

Notes on Varna System

Two great Rishis of ancient India once met to plan the structure a stable society. Rishi Brigu recognized that there were four sources of power in a society and suggested that no single person or group of people should control more than one of each. The four sources are 1. Knowledge, 2. Weapons, 3. Wealth, 4. Land.  Therefore those who …

Ramanujan’s Divine Mathematics

Researchers recently solved the cryptic deathbed puzzle renowned Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan claimed came to him in dreams. While on his death-bed in 1920, Ramanujan wrote a letter to his mentor, English mathematician G. H. Hardy, outlining several new mathematical functions never before heard of, along with a hunch about how they worked, decades later, researchers say they’ve proved he …